Zhao Y, Nan Z*, Yu W, Zhang L. Calibrating a hydrological model by stratifying frozen ground types and seasons in a cold alpine basin. Water. 2019, 11(5): 985. DOI:10.3390/w11050985.
Abstract: Frozen ground and precipitation seasonality may strongly affect hydrological processes in a cold alpine basin, but the calibration of a hydrological model rarely considers their impacts on model parameters, likely leading to considerable simulation biases. In this study, we conducted a case study in a typical alpine catchment, the Babao River basin, in Northwest China, using the distributed hydrology–soil–vegetation model (DHSVM), to investigate the impacts of frozen ground type and precipitation seasonality on model parameters. The sensitivity analysis identified seven sensitive parameters in the DHSVM, amid which soil model parameters are found sensitive to the frozen ground type and land cover/vegetation parameters sensitive to dry and wet seasons. A stratified calibration approach that considers the impacts on model parameters of frozen soil types and seasons was then proposed and implemented by the particle swarm optimization method. The results show that the proposed calibration approach can obviously improve simulation accuracy in modeling streamflow in the study basin. The seasonally stratified calibration has an advantage in controlling evapotranspiration and surface flow in rainy periods, while the spatially stratified calibration considering frozen soil type enhances the simulation of base flow. In a typical cold alpine area without sufficient measured parametric values, this approach can outperform conventional calibration approaches in providing more robust parameter values. The underestimation in the April streamflow also highlights the importance of improved physics in a hydrological model, without which the model calibration cannot fully compensate the gap.
Keywords: parameter calibration; cold alpine basin; frozen ground; precipitation seasonality; sensitivity analysis; distributed hydrology–soil–vegetation model
赵奕，南卓铜*，李祥飞，徐毅，张凌. 分布式水文模型DHSVM在西北高寒山区流域的适用性研究. 冰川冻土. 2019, 41(1): 147-157.
分布式水文－土壤－植被模型（Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model, DHSVM）是基于栅格离散的分布式水文模型，对地表水热循环的各个过程能进行很精细地刻画，被广泛应用于世界各地很多类型的流域的高时空分辨率的水文模拟，然而它在高寒山区的适用性并不清楚。基于300ｍ数字高程模型，应用DHSVM 模型对典型的高寒山区流域八宝河流域2001-2009年的水文过程展开模拟，并采用流域出口祁连站的水文实测数据对模型进行了精度评价。参数敏感性分析表明，土壤横向导水率、田间持水量和植被反照率等是该区域主要的敏感性参数。模型默认参数会高估高寒山区流域的潜在蒸散发量，导致夏季径流量远小于观测值。通过参数率定，模型校准期（2001-2004）的模拟日径流和月径流Nash 效率系数分别达到0.72 和0.87；而模型验证期（2005-2009）分别为0.60 和0.74 。结果表明，DHSVM 模型基本具备了模拟高寒山区流域降水－径流过程的能力。然而，由于DHSVM 模型缺少对高寒山区流域土壤的冻融过程的刻画，春季径流的模拟精度明显受到影响，需要在将来重点改进。
下载 （pdf, ~1.86 MB):
赵彦博，曹学诚，南卓铜*，吴小波. 基于开源GIS的DHSVM模型河网数据自动制备方法应用研究. 遥感技术与应用. 2016, 31(04): 793-800.
zyb et al. dhsvm-pdf (1.53MB)
Zhuotong Nan (南卓铜, [email protected])
Three files related to stream data are required to run DHSVM. One is the stream network file, which include information for each stream segment. The second is the stream mapping file, which contains stream information on a cell by cell basis. The last one is a look up table file specifying the information of each channel class. In addition, a soil depth grid is also related to the stream data.
In this document, I used the following example files.
- Stream.network.dat: stream network file
- Stream.map.dat: stream mapping file
- Stream.class.dat: stream class file
- Soild: soil depth grid
The first three data files are in text format which can be opened with any text editors. The last is in ESRI ArcGIS Grid format that can be viewed with ArcMap or any GIS with support of this format.
See the 7-page document for details.
Workflow of Preparing Stream Data for DHSVM
Zhuotong Nan (南卓铜, [email protected])
Preparing stream data for DHSVM is very complicated. Many AML scripts as well as Java are involved. Through the example showed below, I want to examine what the preparation really does and what happens behind the scripts. The scripts need ArcGIS workstation, which is not commonly installed. Thus I wrote this article, in the hope that without installation of ArcGIS workstation, you can see clearly the processes and if you want you can re-implement it with other languages.
I created a folder named “highplandpark” on the desktop, whose actual path is c:usersnztdesktophighlandpark. The contents in this folder include,
- Arcscripts, directory, the aml scripts copied from DHSVM.
- Programs, directory, the java codes copied from DHSVM
- Dembuilding_my.asc, file, dem file
- Mask.asc, file, the mask file for the area of interest
Those files can be found here.
In order to repeat the following steps, ArcGIS Desktop and Workstation, Java Runtime Environment JRE, shall be installed as prerequisites. I used version 10.0 for both ArcGIS Desktop and Workstation and JRE 7. My OS is Windows 7 x64.
Generated soil depth grid
Read the 18-page full document, pdf (478KB)
Two attached files